HISTORY OF PLYMOUTH DEVON
PLYMOUTH'S OLD BARBICANDuring the second world war large parts of Plymouth were destroyed, but lots of the Barbican area survived with its interesting mediaeval streets and Tudor Dwellings.
The Barbican is a warren of quirky narrow streets and alley ways, adjacent to Sutton Harbour, the original seaport of this historic area.
The Barbican is full of history, perhaps the most celebrated expedition to leave Plymouth was that of the Pilgrims to form the Plymouth Colony in America. The Pilgrim Fathers set sail from Plymouth on the 16th September 1620 in the Mayflower captained by Myles Standish steering a course for Virginia. The ship was a double decked, three masted vessel. However a storm blew them off course and they reached land at Cape Cod which they renamed Plymouth Rock. They dropped anchor on 21st November 1620,they reached the site that was to become Plymouth Colony on 21st December 1620 and established their own government.
The Mayflower Memorial marks a point close to which they last walked on English soil before crossing the Atlantic.
Further explorations that left from Plymouth included three voyages to the southern ocean and the Pacific made by James Cook, the first in 1768. He was the first explorer to set foot on what are now the Hawaiian Islands, where he died in 1779.
In 1831 Charles Darwin left Plymouth for the Galapagos Islands, where he formulated his revolutionary theories of natural selection and the Origins of Species.
There were many other groups of settlers who set sail for different parts of the New World – Australia, America, Canada and New Zealand, including convicts, among them the Tolpuddle Martyrs in 1834 who, having been fully pardoned, were back sooner than they had anticipated and who spent several nights in 1838 in the Dolphin Hotel here before returning to Dorset.
PATHE NEWS has some very interesting news films of wartime Plymouth well worth a look.Pathe News
NEW STREETIn New Street you will find the 'Elizabethan House', a beautifully restored Captain's dwelling dating from 1548. In the house, you can see the original windows, spiral staircase winding around an old ship's mast. A short stroll further along the street brings you to the entrance of the restored Elizabethan Gardens, with their ornate pond and tranquil atmosphere.
Raleigh, Drake, Hawkins and Captain Cook, all strolled through the Barbican before setting off from this historic area on their voyages. In more modern times, Scott of the Antarctic set off from here on his final expedition to the South Pole.
PLYMOUTH GINIn Southside Street stands the distillery of Plymouth Gin which has been produced since 1793 exported to dozens of countries around the world,guided tours of the distillery are available throughout the year.
Jacka's Shop today.
F.H. JACKAF.H.JACKA Britain's oldest commercial bakery is F.H.Jacka in Plymouth,Devon.Based in Southside Street on the historic Barbican,it was operating at least as long ago as the 16th century, and was open when Sir Francis Drake played bowls on Plymouth Hoe before turning his attention to the Spanish Armada.
Jacka's also served the Pilgrims' boats before they headed for America.
This photo above is of Fone Warren Bakery,38 Southside Street: c1900 now known as Jacka's Bakery. Next door was Hingston Brothers Blockmakers at 37 Southside Street. Many families cooked their dinners at Jacka's in their ovens during the war. The image includes: Kate Warren (holding the baby), John Fone Warren (child standing) and Leslie Fone Warren (the baby). Old Photos of Plymouth
PLYMOUTH HOEPlymouth Hoe provides a great, relaxing view-point to watch ships sail in and out of Plymouth Sound,with views out to Drake's Island, Mount Batten,Mount Edgecumbe Park and the Eddystone Lighthouse.Dotted with memorials to Plymouth's past.
After a sound 127 years of service, Smeaton's Tower had become a landmark dearly loved by Plymouth's residents. Although new technology had now superseded Smeaton's Tower, in 1882 Plymouth's locals raised funds to have it dismantled and re-erected on Plymouth's Hoe – a testament and a tribute to Smeaton's engineering brilliance. On your visit, you can climb the 93 steps to the top of Smeaton's Tower.
Plymouth's importance both as a community and a port accelerated during this period. In 1254 its town status was recognised by Royal Charter, and in 1439 Plymouth was the first town in England to be granted a Charter by Parliament. Trade with other English regions, the Baltics and Northern Europe expanded, whilst fortifications were built up to repel repeated French incursions.
During the next three centuries Plymouth established its reputation both as a centre for voyage and discovery, and for its military importance. Transatlantic trade originated with William Hawkins in 1528. His son John laid the foundations of an organised naval force. Photos of Plymouth
In 1572 Sir Francis Drake became the first Englishman to sail into the Pacific, and in 1577 he embarked on the first ever circumnavigation of the globe. Back in Plymouth, Drake masterminded the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588. According to popular legend, he played bowls on Plymouth Hoe as the Armada sailed up the Channel. Drake was responsible also for the establishment of England's first colony, at Roanoke in Virginia, an act that may be regarded as the origins of the British Empire.
ROYAL DOCKYARDIn 1690 the first Royal Dockyard opened on the banks of the Tamar west of Plymouth. Further docks were built in 1727, 1762 and 1793, and a huge naval complex was later established, including the communities of Plymouth Dock and Stonehouse. The Navy's role during war against Napoleon's France was pivotal, and in 1812 a mile-long breakwater was laid to protect the fleet.
Throughout the nineteenth century the population and physical size of the towns increased dramatically. In 1824 Plymouth Dock was renamed Devonport, and in 1914 the three towns of Plymouth, Devonport and Stonehouse were united as the Borough of Plymouth. In 1928 Plymouth was granted City status, and the first Lord Mayor was appointed in 1935.
Plymouth was heavily bombed during the Second World War. Plymouth's and Devonport's centres were destroyed. Re-built in the 1950s, Plymouth's commercial heart was the first in England to incorporate pedestrian-only shopping avenues. Since the war the city has expanded, with new housing and commercial developments and absorption of what once were neighbouring communities. In 1967 Plymouth absorbed the towns of Plympton and Plymstock. Plympton pre-dates any development in the Sutton / Plymouth area on the coast. Plympton stands two miles inland on the river Plym, and its origins, which, like that of Sutton, date from the Saxon age, were founded on tin mining and trading. For as long as trading vessels could reach Plympton, the community flourished. However, in the early years of the last millennium the river silted with mining residue, and it was from that time that Sutton / Plymouth grew to pre-eminence. The name Plympton means plum-tree village in Saxon English, and it was from this that the river and later the city of Plymouth itself derived their names.
Today Plymouth is the third largest city in southern England, with a population of almost 250,000. It has strong links with several European cities, with ferry links to France and Spain. Plymouth is twinned with Gdynia in Poland, San Sebastian in Spain, Novorossiysk in Russia, Brest in France and, since 2001, with Plymouth, Massachusetts.
The whole region is a popular tourist destination, and the city itself attracts large numbers of visitors, particularly Americans, who are drawn to the Old Barbican district.
THE MERCHANT'S HOUSE
THE PRYSTEN HOUSE
Plymouth is a naval town the Royal Naval Dockyards were built at Devonport / Plymouth in the 17th century, and this was the beginning of Plymouth's huge importance as a naval base. Working docks are of course still there today, only accessible usually in August on Plymouth Navy Days events. It's strategic importance as a naval base made Plymouth a key target for bombing during the Second World War. Learn more about the devastating effects of war on Plymouth at the super Plymouth City Museum & Art Gallery in the town centre.
BUSINESSES IN AND AROUND PLYMOUTH
Athenaeum Lodge 4 Athenaeum Street, The Hoe Plymouth, Devon PL1 2RQ Tel: +44 (01752) 665005 Athenaeum Lodge
Imperial Hotel Lockyer Street The Hoe Plymouth Tel 01752 227311
The Tudor House Citadel Rd. 01752 661557
Caledonia Guest House 27 Athenaeum Street,The Hoe,Plymouth, Devon. PL1 2RQ Tel: +44 01752 229052
Copthorne Hotel Armada Way Plymouth Devon PL1 1AR Tel: +44 (01752) 224161
Invicta Hotel 11/12 Osborne Place Lockyer Street Plymouth Devon PL1 2PU Tel: +44 (01752) 664997
Boringdon Hall, Colebrook, Plympton, Plymouth PL7 4DP Devon Tel 01752 344455.
Cranbourne Hotel 278/282 Citadel Road,The Hoe, Plymouth, Devon Tel: (01752) 263858,
Squires Guest House 7 St James Pl.East.Plymouth.PL1 Tel 01752 261459
Bowling Green Hotel 9-10 Osborne Pl,Lockyer Street,The Hoe, Plymouth, PL1 2PU Phone: +44 (0)1752 209090
Elfordleigh Hotel Colebrook, Plympton, Plymouth,tel +44 01752 336428
The Lamplighter Hotel 103 Citadel Rd, The Hoe, Plymouth, PL1 2RN Phone: +44 01752 663855
The Mildmay Colours Fore St, Holbeton, Plymouth, PL8 1NA Phone: +44 (0)1752 830248
A little gem in Plymouth 10/10 for their fish & chips and friendly service. Francine's Fish & Chip Shop North Prospect Road Plymouth 01752 567577
Restaurant One 1 Mutley Plain. Mutley Plymouth. 01752 671747
Bistro One 68 Ebrington Street Charles Cross Plymouth. 01752 313 315
Churchill's Elfordleigh Hotel, Colebrook Plymouth. 01752 336428
Bistro Bene Dolphin House Sutton Harbour Plymouth. 01752 254879
Kitley House Hotel Yealmpton Plymouth. 01752 881555
The Artillery Tower Restaurant Durnford Street Plymouth. 01752 257610
Duttons Cafe Continental. Madeira Rd, Plymouth. 01752 255245
Joined Up Whiting 2 North East Quay, Plymouth. 01752 665325
Zucca Italian Brasserie Sutton Harbour Company North Quay, Plymouth. . 01752 224225
Cuisine Spontanee Century Quay Sutton Harbour, Plymouth. 01752 673757
Morgans Brasseries & Bar 19 Princess Street, Plymouth. 01752 255579.